According to Marwick, the group's appearance and Kennedy's provided "the two great points of reference in this respect". It was widely mocked by adults,  being unusually long for the era, and became an emblem of rebellion to the burgeoning youth culture. In their book Re-making Love: The Feminization of Sex , authors Barbara Ehrenreich , Elizabeth Hess and Gloria Jacobs said that the Beatles' haircuts signalled androgyny and thus presented a less threatening version of male sexuality to teenage girls, while their presentable suits meant they seemed less "sleazy" than Presley to middle-class whites.
Young people were called "hairies" by their elders, and were arrested and forced to have their hair cut in police stations. Clothing styles were similarly influenced, firstly by the band's Pierre Cardin suits and Cuban-heeled Beatle boots , and later by the Carnaby Street mod fashions they wore. The chicks looked like 's horses. There was no conception of dress or any of that jazz. The Beatles differed from previous musical acts in their presentation as a group in which each of the individual personalities was seen as indispensable to the whole, and each member attracted fanatical devotion.
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Stark , their lack of a designated leader aligned with a more typically feminine approach to collaboration, an aspect that increased their resonance among the female audience and subsequently influenced men's self-perception and cultural views on masculinity. In , the Beatles starred in the film A Hard Day's Night as fictionalised versions of themselves, which created a lasting impression of their individual personas.
Lennon became known as "the smart one", Paul McCartney "the cute one", George Harrison "the quiet one", and Ringo Starr "the lucky one". Towards the end of , by which point the Beatles' artistic maturity had left many younger listeners yearning for their innocent, "mop-top" image, the Monkees were assembled by a pair of Hollywood-based television executives as a four-piece band in the Beatles' mould. The producers of the Disney animated film The Jungle Book hoped to include the Beatles in a scene featuring four vultures with mop-top hairstyles singing " That's What Friends Are For ".
After the band declined to take part, the scene was voiced by actors adopting Liverpudlian accents and the song was given a barbershop quartet arrangement.
Along with Beatles-themed wallpaper and jewellery, "Beatles wigs" were popular and widely available in UK stores from According to Doggett, while Presley's image had similarly been exploited, "the onslaught of ephemeral artefacts aimed at Beatles fans between and dwarfed every previous campaign. According to Gould, the Beatles served as the "archetype" of a rock band, in contrast to the vocal and harmony groups with which listeners were most familiar in Tom Petty , who joined the Sundowners in Gainesville, Florida after seeing the Beatles' US television debut,  recalled: "Within weeks of that, you could drive through literally any neighborhood in Gainesville and you would hear the strains of garage bands playing I mean everywhere.
And I'd say by a year from that time, Gainesville probably had 50 bands. In the US, thousands of bands sought to imitate the Beatles, some adopting English-sounding names to capitalise on the British Invasion,  and the proliferation of new groups was evident in many other countries. Before the mids, competition between popular recording artists was typically measured by popularity and record sales, with artistic rivalries usually only occurring between jazz or classical musicians.
Comparing its effect on s popular music to Charlie Chaplin 's on s filmmaking, Gould credits the Beatles' increasing ambition "to write better songs" with inspiring "intense creative rivalries" between themselves and other acts who "felt a need to validate their success by experimenting with songwriting and record-making in ways that would have seemed unimaginable only a few years before.
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Over the decade as a whole, the Beatles were the dominant youth-centred pop act on the sales charts. Bob Dylan and the Rolling Stones were symbolic of the nascent youth revolt against institutional authority, something that was not immediately recognisable within the Beatles until Many commentators would later reference this meeting as a cultural turning point.
They were seen as idolaters, not idealists. In July , Dylan suffered a motorcycle accident and spent a period in convalescence, and Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys subsequently took his place as the Beatles' chief artistic rival. Through the Beatles' early success, the Lennon—McCartney partnership revolutionised songwriting in Britain by usurping the Denmark Street tradition of in-house songwriters.
Kramer, the Fourmost and the Rolling Stones,  and they opened up opportunities in the US that were previously unavailable for non-performing British songwriters, such as Tony Hatch. Writing in their book Encyclopedia of Classic Rock , David Luhrssen and Michael Larson describe Lennon and McCartney's songwriting as "more melodically and harmonically unpredictable than that of their peers", and say that the Beatles' sound "struck many ears as outrageous, especially the falsetto leaps in songs such as 'She Loves You,' which might have been inspired by Little Richard but sounded unprecedented".
In Britain, music journalists started including pop and rock music in serious discussion as a direct consequence of the Beatles' breakthrough. With A Hard Day's Night in July , the band became the first pop act since Buddy Holly to issue an album consisting entirely of original compositions. According to Doggett, their social milieu in represented "new territory for pop" and a challenge to British class delineation as the Beatles introduced an "arty middle-class" sensibility to pop music. In December , the Beatles released Rubber Soul. Recording for the album took place over a four-week period uninterrupted by touring, filming or radio engagements,  making its creation highly unusual for the time.
Released in May , Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band is described by Doggett as "the biggest pop happening" to take place between the Beatles' debut on American television in February and Lennon's murder in December Pepper achieved full cultural legitimisation for pop music and recognition for the medium as a genuine art form.
Pepper as one of the most "obvious" choices for inclusion in Albums That Changed Popular Music , due to its continued commercial success, the wealth of imitative works it inspired, and its ongoing recognition as "a defining moment in the history of music". The Beatles represented a diverse collection of musical styles that one critic likened to a history of Western music,  and its November release was viewed as a major cultural event.
Pepper had introduced to rock criticism,  as reviewers were unable to locate it within the Beatles' canon.
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From , the Beatles provided one of the first opportunities for female teenagers to exhibit spending power and publicly express sexual desire, while the group's image suggested a disregard for adults' opinions and parents' ideas of morality. The group's popularity subsequently grew into what was seen as an embodiment of sociocultural movements of the decade,  and their artistic maturation reflected the era's social developments.
Pepper achieved a cross-generational appeal;  in " She's Leaving Home ", McCartney and Lennon sang of a real-life teenage runaway but gave an unusually sympathetic perspective on the parents' sense of loss. According to Stark, the social unity conveyed by the Beatles from the start of their career inspired the framework for the collectivist thinking that distinguished the s and the emergence of the counterculture movement.
Marwick writes that while American folk singers Dylan and Joan Baez were more identifiable with civil rights issues, in Beatles songs, "it was a case of music and lyrics together constructing — constantly changing — moods which never failed, it seemed, to evoke responses in large numbers of listeners of the day.
During the Beatles' US tour in August—September , the group spoke out against racial segregation in the country at the time, particularly in the South. When informed that the venue for their 11 September concert, the Gator Bowl in Jacksonville, Florida , was segregated, the Beatles said they would refuse to perform unless the audience was integrated.
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They used that platform really well It took a lot of courage. Miracles leader Smokey Robinson said he was especially grateful for the Beatles' championing of Motown music and their choosing to cover songs by Motown artists. He added that they "were the first white artists to ever admit that they grew up and honed themselves on black music. I loved the fact that they did that, that they were honest The Beatles subsequently invited Mary Wells to be their support act on a UK tour   and in arranged for Esther Phillips to give her first performances outside the US.
The Beatles were widely condemned by conservative elements of society, as Presley and other symbols of rock and roll had been during the s. In August , the Indonesian government burned the group's records in order to "preserve the national identity in the field of culture" as part of that country's twentieth anniversary celebrations of independence. The US Labor Department attempted to ban the Beatles from performing in the country, motivated by cultural conservatism and after lobbying from the American Federation of Musicians.
The authorities in Japan viewed the band as subversive until their appointment as MBEs in Joaquin likened the group's presence in Manila to Batman being transplanted to Thebes in Ancient Greece. His comments had caused no significant reaction in the UK,   but radio stations in the US Bible Belt soon launched a boycott of Beatles music and organised bonfires of the band's records and merchandise.
In the UK, criticism largely faded with the band's international breakthrough, as commentators recognised the Beatles' value to the economy. Rubber Soul included Lennon's " The Word ", the lyrics of which anticipated the ethos behind the counterculture's Summer of Love ,  while the follow-up Revolver included a number of songs whose lyrics address themes of death and transcendence from material concerns. From , the Beatles began to promulgate a world view espousing LSD-inspired higher consciousness, led by Lennon and Harrison defying Epstein's insistence that the group refrain from commenting on political issues such as the Vietnam War.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and says that Harrison's song " Within You Without You " "contained the album's most overt expression of the Beatles' shared belief in spiritual awareness and social change". Pepper to "Beethoven coming to the supermarket", adding: "It summed up so much of what we were saying politically, culturally, artistically, expressing our inner feelings and our view of the world in a way that was so revolutionary. In his feature on the song in Rolling Stone , Gavin Edwards writes that when "All You Need Is Love" was issued as a single weeks later, it reached "Number One all over the world, providing the sing-song anthem for the Summer of Love, with a sentiment that was simple but profound".
Laing wrote of the song's contemporary relevance: "Everyone was getting the feel of the world as a global village — as us, one species One of the most heartening things about the Beatles was that they gave expression to a shared sense of celebration around the world, a sense of the same sensibility.
In response to the political events and more turbulent atmosphere of , the Beatles released " Revolution ", in the lyrics to which Lennon espoused a pacifist agenda over violent confrontation. The Beatles was similarly scrutinised by the counterculture. Both the Manson murders and the Beatles' break-up are often cited as marking the decade's closure. When Lennon died, that truly was the end of The Beatles made taking drugs seem an enjoyable, fashionable and liberating experience, like them, you would see and feel in ways you hadn't imagined possible.
The band's drug-taking became public knowledge with the release of Sgt. McCartney's admission formalised the link between rock music and drugs, and, as in the controversy, attracted scorn from American religious leaders and conservatives.
Anything else they must have brought. With the release of "Cold Turkey", which the other Beatles had rejected as a possible single, Lennon made public his and Ono's struggle with heroin addiction. The Beatles' interest in Eastern religions is described by MacDonald as arguably the "most striking example" of the band's ability to transform a minor social trend into a world-wide phenomenon and thereby "magnify" cultural developments during the second half of the s.
Tillery writes that, while the influence of Indian gurus such as Vivekananda , Yogananda , the Maharishi and Prabhupada was well established by the late s, it was the Beatles' endorsement of their respective philosophies that most contributed to yoga and meditation centres becoming ubiquitous in Western cities and towns over subsequent decades.
The Beats had promoted Buddhism since the s, but it was George Harrison's songs espousing Hindu philosophy and featuring Indian musicians, and the Beatles' study of Transcendental Meditation, that truly kick-started the human potential movement of the s rebranded New Age in the s. In this way, the musicians helped expand the freedom of religion the United States was founded on to encompass options outside the Judeo-Christian tradition.
The Beatles introduced new methods of artistic presentation for pop musicians. Its success popularised the format and, in giving equal treatment to two songs, allowed recording artists to show their versatility. The Beatles' album covers furthered the medium as an art form  and were widely imitated. The latter featured a distorted image of the band's faces, which were nevertheless so instantly recognisable by that no artist credit was necessary. For the US LP Yesterday and Today in , the Beatles supplied Capitol with a cover showing them in butcher's white coats and clutching raw meat and dismembered dolls.
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Writing in their book The Art of the LP , Johnny Morgan and Ben Wardle say the Beatles were arguably the leaders in "creating identity" through album artwork, an approach they consider motivated by the group's retirement as live performers, as well as the catalyst for record company art designers to incorporate drug allusions in their LP covers following the example set by Revolver and Sgt. According to author Ian Inglis, the cover for Sgt.
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