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The vulnerability of park beaches to inundation, and associated extreme coastal change, during a direct hurricane landfall can be assessed by comparing the elevations of storm-induced mean-water levels storm surge to the elevations of the crest of the sand dune that defines the beach system. Maps detailing the inundation potential for Category hurricanes can be used by park managers to determine the relative vulnerability of various barrier-island parks and to assess which areas of a particular park are more susceptible to inundation and extreme coastal changes.
Coastal erosion on Northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands is an ongoing issue that was exacerbated by the storm seasons of and when several hurricanes made landfall in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition to the loss of or damage to natural and cultural resources within the park, damage to park infrastructure, including park access roads and utilities, occurred in areas experiencing rapid shoreline retreat.
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The main park road was located as close as 50 m to the pre-storm shoreline and was still under repair from damage incurred during Hurricane Ivan when the hurricanes struck. This plan, like the existing General Management Plan, strives to incorporate natural barrier island processes, and will guide future efforts to provide access to units of Gulf Islands National Seashore on Santa Rosa Island. To assess changes in island geomorphology and provide data for park management, the National Park Service and the U.
Areas of historic erosion, reaching a maximum rate of The shoreline erosion rates in. Geological Survey, as part of its Climate and Land Use Change Research and Development Program, is conducting a multi-year investigation to assess potential impacts on the natural resources of Assateague Island National Seashore , Maryland that may result from changes in the hydrologic system in response to projected sea-level rise.
As part of this effort, 26 monitoring wells were installed in pairs along five east-west trending transects. Each of the five transects has between two and four pairs of wells, consisting of a shallow well and a deeper well. The shallow well typically was installed several feet below the water table—usually in freshwater about 10 feet below land surface ft bls —to measure water-level changes in the shallow groundwater system. The deeper well was installed below the anticipated depth to the freshwater-saltwater interface—usually in saltwater about 45 to 55 ft bls—for the purpose of borehole geophysical logging to characterize local differences in lithology and salinity and to monitor tidal influences on groundwater.
Four of the 13 shallow wells and 5 of the 13 deeper wells were instrumented with water-level recorders that collected water-level data at minute intervals from August 12 through September 28, Data collected from these instrumented wells were compared with tide data collected north of Assateague Island at the Ocean City Inlet tide gage, and precipitation data collected by National Park Service staff on Assateague Island.
These data indicate that precipitation events coupled with changes in ambient sea level had the largest effect on groundwater levels in all monitoring wells near the Atlantic Ocean and Chincoteague and Sinepuxent Bays, whereas precipitation events alone had the greatest impact on shallow groundwater levels near the center of the island.
Daily and bi-monthly tidal cycles appeared to have minimal influence on groundwater levels throughout the island and the water-level changes that were. The effect of storms on long-term dynamics of barrier islands was evaluated on Core Banks, a series of barrier islands that extend from Cape Lookout to Okracoke Inlet in the Cape Lookout National Seashore , North Carolina. Shoreline and elevation changes were determined by comparing 77 profiles and associated reference markers established by the U. Evaluation of the baseline data associated with the USACE study supplies an important record of barrier island response to two specific storm events—Hurricane Donna in September and the Ash Wednesday extra-tropical cyclone in March Starting in , however, and continuing through , the North Carolina coast experienced a major increase in storm activity, with seven major hurricanes impacting Core Banks.
Those resulting long-term data were compared with the long-term 52 years data sets by the North Carolina Division of Coastal Management NCDCM from — and —; a strong positive correlation and very similar rates of average annual erosion resulted. Fire Island is a barrier island that lies south of central Long Island, N.
It is about 60 km 37 mi long and 0. Interspersed throughout FIIS are 17 residential beach communities that together contain about 4, homes. The barrier island's summer population increases fold through the arrival of summer residents and vacationers.
About 2. Combined visitation on a peak-season weekend day can be as high as , National Park Service, Most homes and businesses in the 17 barrier-island communities discharge untreated wastewater directly to the shallow water-table aquifer through private septic systems and cesspools; the NPS facilities discharge wastewater to this aquifer through leach fields and cesspools. The community of Ocean Beach fig. Contaminants in sewage entering the shallow groundwater move through the flow system and are ultimately discharged to adjacent marine surface waters, where they can pose a threat to coastal habitats.
A contaminant of major concern is nitrogen, which is derived from fertilizers and human waste. The continuous inflow of nitrogen to surface-water bodies can lead to increased production of phytoplankton and macroalgae, which in turn can cause oxygen.
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Spatial and temporal assessment of back-barrier erosion on Cumberland Island National Seashore , Georgia, — Catastrophic slumping and regular rates of erosion greater than 1 meter per year threaten important habitat, historical and pre-historical resources, and modern infrastructure on the island. Prior research has helped National Park Service NPS staff identify the most severe and vulnerable areas, but in order to develop effective management actions, information is needed on what forces and conditions cause erosion.
To this end, the U. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NPS, conducted two longitudinal surveys, one each at the beginning and end of the approximately year-long monitoring period from late to early , along five selected segments of the back barrier of the Cumberland Island National Seashore. Monitoring stations were constructed at four of these locations that had previously been identified as erosional hotspots.
The magnitude of erosion at each location was quantified to determine the relative influence of causative agents. Observed erosion ranged from a maximum of 2. In terms of timing of erosion, three of the four sites were primarily affected by punctuated erosional events that were coincident with above-average high tides and elevated wind speeds. The fourth site exhibited steady, low-magnitude retreat throughout the study period.
While it is difficult to precisely subscribe certain amounts of erosion to specific agents, this study provides.
Rose, Kathryn V. With more than 80 ocean and Great Lakes parks encompassing approximately 2. The recommended SBMP protocols include servicewide standards for example, gap analysis, minimum accuracy, final products as well as standards that can be adapted to fit network and park unit needs for example, minimum mapping unit, mapping priorities. The SBMP requires the inventory and mapping of critical components of coastal and marine ecosystems: bathymetry, geoforms, surface geology, and biotic cover. In order for a park unit benthic inventory to be considered complete, maps of bathymetry and other key components must be combined into a final report Moses and others, By this standard, none of the three pilot parks are mapped inventoried to completion with respect to submerged resources.
After compiling the existing benthic datasets for these parks, this report has concluded that CHIS, with 49 percent of its submerged area mapped, has the most complete benthic inventory of the three. Integrating social marketing into sustainable resource management at Padre Island National Seashore : an attitude-based segmentation approach. High demand for outdoor recreation and increasing diversity in outdoor recreation participants have imposed a great challenge on the National Park Service NPS , which is tasked with the mission to provide open access for quality outdoor recreation and maintain the ecological integrity of the park system.
In addition to management practices of education and restrictions, building a sense of natural resource stewardship among visitors may also facilitate the NPS ability to react to this challenge. The purpose of our study is to suggest a segmentation approach that is built on the social marketing framework and aimed at influencing visitor behaviors to support conservation. Attitude toward natural resource management, an indicator of natural resource stewardship, is used as the basis for segmenting park visitors.
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Results of the K-means cluster analysis identify three visitor segments: Conservation-Oriented, Development-Oriented, and Status Quo visitors. This segmentation solution is verified using respondents' socio-demographic backgrounds, use patterns, experience preferences, and attitudes toward a proposed regulation. Suggestions are provided to better target the three visitor segments and facilitate a sense of natural resource stewardship among them. A population of this size may face immediate risk of extirpation from several sources.
At several former breeding sites at CAHA, there have been no nesting pairs in recent years. Only one plover chick has survived to fledging at CAHA, While survival of eggs has often been moderate to high since , survival of chicks has generally been low. Reproductive rate improved in , with 6 chicks fledging from 2 pairs in conjunction with more actively managed closures in brood-rearing areas. Inclement weather, predation, and recreational disturbance may negatively impact reproductive success of piping plovers at CAHA.
Recreational disturbance and habitat loss caused by ORVs may discourage pairs from attempting to nest. To recover the breeding plover population at CAHA, it will be necessary to create disturbance-free areas containing high-quality nesting and foraging habitat from the territory-establishment phase to the brood-rearing phase of the breeding cycle.
We provide three management options to reduce risk of disturbance and mortality.
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They entail full closure of the seashore to recreation, closure of historical breeding sites to ORVs, or restriction of recreation to an oceanside corridor. To reduce the risk of egg and chick mortality, we recommend continued efforts to trap and remove mammalian predators from all aforementioned sites and the continued use of predator exclosures around nests. Even if reproductive success improves under our recommendations, however, a population of this size will take several. Old Business 7.
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New Business 8. Date and DeWitt, Nancy T. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island.
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