Rugiero, the hero of the play and the long-lost son of Pedro Morosini, may be historical, for mention is made of a Ruggiero Morosini who in was in command of a Venetian fleet that attacked Constantinople. The mere use of an additional name of historical authenticity,.
The remaining characters of the play are either the author's own creations or else persons of little or no historical importance; hence they may be passed over without further comment. A slight anachronism is indicated in the cast of characters, in which Pedro Morosini is given the office of "presidente primero del Tribunal de los Diez. The need for such a body was made apparent by the conspiracy of , of which the Council of Ten may be said to have been a direct result.
The revolt broke out on June 15, , and the Council of Ten was created as a committee of public safety on July ioth of the same year. Designed at first to function only until Michaelmas, the Council soon became an integral part of the governmental machinery. After various extensions of time W. Carew Hazlitt, History of the Venetian. III, p. Horatio F.
An adequate treatment of the various underlying causes of the conspiracy is impossible within the confines of this paper. The struggle between the old and the new orders of the aristocracy for the control of the Venetian government was growing more bitter and personal. Street fighting became so frequent that citizens were forbidden to carry arms, and the Signori di Notte, as heads of the police patrol, ware ordered to enforce this edict. Marco Morosini, one of these "Lords of the Night and an adherent of the Gradenigo faction, on one occasion endeavored to search Pietro Querini, the brother of Marco Querini, for concealed weapons.
Marco Querini resolved to act at once, and he called a meeting of various prominent nobles known to be in opposition to the DogeJ Bajamonte Tiepolo, whose popularity with the common people caused his aid to be considered a valuable asset to any projected conspiracy against the party in power, was not in Venice at the time; but it was decided to hold a second meeting to which he should be invited.
And now we approach the opening act of the play. Among these grievances was the closing of the Great Council to ail but a very small group of the nobility, a political stroke accomplished by the party of the Doge in The battle of Curzola, fought between the Venetians and the Genoese in , had resulted in the almost total dt!
Jean d'Acre had long been regarded as the "Key of Palestine," and its loss to the Mussulmans is was a severe blow to the Eastern trade of Venice. Jacopo Querini opposed the use of violence against the Doge and his party, but on Jacopo's departure for Constantinople a final meeting was held and the details of the revolt were worked out. The attack on the governmental party was set for June i5th, and the conspirators were to gather at the Querini palace the night before.
At dawn they were to start for the Piazza of St. Mark in two divisions, one of which was to be led by Marco Querini and the other by Tiepolo. The object was to seize the ducal palace, kill or capture the Doge and his chief supporters, and thus break the backbone of the resistance at one stroke.
Badoer was sent to the mainland to take command of the troops previously enlisted from the vicinity of Padua. On the appointed day he was supposed to arrive with his forces by water, seize the Grand Canal, and unite with the other conspirators in the Piazza. But it is necessary to return to the play in order to see to what extent it coincides with history. Acts II and III, although of great dramatic interest, may be passed over as having no direct historical relation to the outcome of the conspiracy. Act IV, in which the actual outbreak occurs, is effective from a dramatic viewpoint but contributes little or no reliable historical information.
The idea of having the disguised conspirators mingle with the merrymakers white awaiting the signal for the attack is a good dramatic device, but it is historically inaccurate. The author is guilty of a rather serious anachronism Act IV, Scene IV when he makes the Comandaitte of the guard refer to the Bridge of Sighs" as an exit from the ducal palace.
This bridge, which connects the state prisons and the ducal palace, was constructed between and , almost three hundred years later than the date of the Tiepoline rebellion. The conspirators were confident of surprising the Doge by their attack, but this expectation was not to be realized.
- Le Petit Prince (Tome 14) - La Planète dAshkabaar (French Edition)?
- Blue Water and Me;
- A History of Medieval Spain (Cornell Paperbacks).
- French and Creole in Louisiana | SpringerLink;
- simple English for meetings!
- Lancelot in Love.
Marco Donato, who had joined the conspirators and thus become acquainted with their plans, secretly changed sides and betrayed the details of the carefully laid plot to the Doge the very afternoon before the scheduled attack of the morrow. The Doge acted with the vigorous promptness demanded by the occasion.
Table of contents
Mark's to hasten to the Piazza for the purpose of defending the Republic, and he dispatched messengers to Chioggia, Murano, Burano, and Torcello, demanding reinforcements. The forces of Tiepolo and those of Marco Querini were led by different routes through the city, and it was Querini's misfortune to arrive first at the Piazza of St.
Here he found the forces of the Doge ready and waiting, and in the surprise of the ensuing struggle Marco Querini was killed and his troops were quickly put to flight. Thus, when Bajamonte arrived he found the party of the Doge in full possession of the Piazza. The Paduan contingent, led by Badoer, was met and defeated shortly thereafter on the lagoon by the reinforcements secured by the Doge from Chioggia.
Badoer was captured, together with a number of his followers. Thus the entire scheme of the conspirators had miscarried, and it merely remained for the Doge to punish the leaders of the insurrection. Querini had been killed; Badoer had been made prisoner, and his execution was but a question of time; Tiepolo, however, offered a more serious problem. He had covered his retreat by. Tiepolo and his chief aides were binished for life from Venice, a number of less influential patricians were exiled for shorter periods, and the more humble of Bajamonte's followers were pardoned.
Badoer was shortly tried, sentenced and beheaded for his part in the conspiracy-a fs. During his exile Tiepolo made several attempts to stir up trouble for the Doge and his party, but the rebellion had bsen too successfully extinguished to be revived. The conspiracy of had rcsulted in strengthening the power of the new aristocracy, rather than in destroying it. The people, depended upon to aid the conspirators, had supported the Doge; aad thus the oligarchy had received, outwardly at least, the confirmation of the Venetian populace.
Ten members were chosen from the Great Council to serve for a period of one year. With these ten men sat the Doge and six ducal couneilors, and t'. The meetings of the Council were held in a room of the ducal palace and were presided over by the Doge. The Doge, it will be remembered, does not figure in the trial of Rugiero in the play. The Council's method of conducting trials is very well brought out by the dramatist. The prisoner was considered guilty until his innocence was proved, a nd he had to conduct his own defense. He was permitted to see neither his accusers nor the witnesses in the case, and prisoner and witnesses might be put to the torture when such a method of securing evidence was deemed advisable by the Council.
Discussion:Marine Le Pen
Among the types of punishment inflicted by the Council were fines, banishment or outlawry, imprisonment, sentences to serve in the galleys, and mutilation. The extreme penalty included death by beheading, strangulation, and drowning; and these executions might be either public Chief sources consulted for details of the conspiracy of Brown, op. I, London, , pp. II, pp. III, pp.
I, footnote to p. The cord and pulley, and exposure of the victim's bare feet to fire were two modes of torture frequently employed. As a matter of fact, the prosecutors were expressly forbidden to cross-examine in anger. Plays with historical settings invariably present difficulties, and an occasional slight deviation from strict historical accuracy of detail may be pardoned the dramatist, especially when such minor changes serve to heighten the dramatic interest.
The Cenci, a tragedy in five acts, Italy, ," and "A. The reading of Shelley's tragedy and of Stendhal's story is sufficient to convince one that from a literary standpoint Stendhal owes nothing to Shelley. The works are incomparable, Shelley's being a work of art.
Still, Stendhal's is not a mere rehash of an old relazione as Crawford s would have us believe. His eleven page preface on the. Don Juans of literature and his three page description of the portraits in the Barberini palace as well as his interpolations in the text make his Cenci Brown, Venice, an Historical Sketch of the Pepublic, pp. Twice he interrupts his translation, explaining in parentheses the reason for so doing, the first time, however, Qmitting practically nothing, the second time,. None of his interpolations alter the current of events.
His only indebtedness to Shelley could be in borrowing Shelley's inventions.
Avis à venir
It seems more probable that this opinion was common property when Shelley wrote, "I had a copy of Guido's picture of Beatrice which is preserved in the Colonna palace," he says 4 in his preface, "snd my servant instantly recognized it as the portrait of La Cenci. It is to be noted likewise that Stendhal finds the portrait in the Barberini palace where it is regularly reported to be, while Shelley says it was in the Colonna palace. Crawford 7 attributes to Stendhal the assertion that he "had been in love with Beatrice's famous portrait for thirty years.
Crawford refers to the i8gg edition of the Chroniques.
Calaméo - Marginalia 74
Stendhal had had plenty of opportunity to become acquainted with Shelley's work before he published his own. Rinieri, Beatrice Cenci, Siena, , p. Nevertheless, we find no indication that Stendhal in his Cenci owes anything to Shelley. If, as Rinieri says,16 Stendhal "riproduce il concetto dello Shelley," it is only true in so far as Shelley followed the old story on which his tragedy was based.
Casting des films doublés
As for what Stendhal owes Malartic it must first be noted that M. It bears on its title page "Londra da' Torchi di J. Moyes, Greville St. Ollier, and not Shelley's original relazione or his translation of it as one might have expected. A comparison of the two Italian accounts in the British Museum and the Shelley translation shows that Stendhal's relazione follows more closely that of London than Malartic's or Shelley's. Stendhal's translation contains, toward the close, a paragraph 19 that does not appear in Shelley's or Malartic's but which does appear with variations in the Italian of In Malartic's relazione, the brothers are sent to school to Salerno; in that of , as in Shelley's, to Salamanca.
In Malartic's, one of the brothers was assassinated by a Dorcino; in that of by a Norcino. Trompeo, Nell' Italia romantica sulle orme di Stendhal, Roma, , p. Since a quack surgeon may be dubbed in French a charcutier, and in Italian a norcino Shelley, who had before him in this particular a text like Stendhal's, was a shade lei.
Naturally if her head had been shaved, she had no curls to grace her on the way to tb: execution. In the version of t82i she had only been threatened with being ah. It will be noticed above that Malartic's version is historically accurate in making Beatrice twenty-two years old when she died.
Shelley makes her twenty. But Stendhal's version is not the only one that says she was sixteen. The question has even been raised whether this Paris relazione was the work of Stendhal and from outside evidence rather hesitatingly decided in the negative.
Related Le jour où jai voulu devenir populaire (Bloom) (French Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved