In one condition, the test sentence at the end of the story was true on a double negation interpretation, but false on a negative concord interpretation. This condition is called Condition 1. In the other condition, the test sentence was true on a negative concord reading, but false on a double negation interpretation. This is called Condition 2. There were 3 test trials in each condition. The control sentences were designed to ensure that children were able to process sentences with 2 instances of negation. There were 3 true controls and 3 false control sentences. The experimental items are given in Appendix A.
First, we will illustrate the experimental materials using an example story from each condition. Below, we give the plotline.
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The detailed scripts for the stories are provided in Appendix B. Two girls are playing at home. One is practicing skipping tricks.
Meanwhile, a young boy comes by the flower shop and buys a bouquet. There is now only one bouquet left at the shop.
follow She goes straight to the flower shop and buys the last bouquet. The situation at the end of this story is illustrated in Figure 1 below. This satisfied the presupposition for double negation, that is, that there was someone who may have bought nothing and that this is being challenged. In addition, the sentence was false on a negative concord reading; it was false that the girl who skipped bought nothing. Two mice and a cat are attending animal preschool.
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At school the teacher suggests that the animal children can either choose to play in the dress-ups corner or the cooking corner before morning tea. One mouse decides to dress up. The cat and the other mouse decide to do some cooking. There are some toy cakes and pizzas to choose from and one cooking bowl. The cat takes the cake and the bowl. The mouse who decided to cook takes the pizza, but has no dish to cook it in. He thinks he might not be able to cook, and he asks the teacher what to do.
She looks in her storeroom and finds another dish for him, so he can do his cooking after all. Meanwhile, the mouse who decided to dress up has finished and there is still time before morning tea. The teacher tells the dressed-up mouse she has time to do some cooking if she would like. The dressed-up mouse wants to make fruit salad. However, there is no toy fruit available, so she decides not to cook, and to wait until morning tea. The situation at the end of this story is illustrated in Figure 2 below. On the other hand, if negative concord is a learned peripheral structure for children acquiring standard English, then children would not access this interpretation.
Instead they would access the double negation reading, which, as noted, was a false description of the events that transpired in the story. This was to ensure that both potential interpretations would be contextually appropriate and available to children. The QAR model was proposed as a means of explaining why children may access only one particular reading of a scopally ambiguous sentence. It was suggested that children only access readings that constitute good answers to some salient question-under-discussion in the relevant context.
If one of the potential readings of a test sentence does not appropriately answer the question made salient by the context, then it was suggested it would simply not be available to children. To ensure that both potential readings are available, both readings should constitute good answers to a clearly defined question under discussion.
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As a precaution, we extended the question-answer requirement for scopally ambiguous sentences to include the kinds of ambiguous sentences that were presented to participants in our experiment. For example, if the test sentence 11 is taken to represent a correction of the previous utterance, it would be interpreted to mean that the girl who skipped bought something. This interpretation requires an affirmative answer to the question Did the girl who skipped buy nothing?
On the other hand, if 11 is taken to mean that the girl who skipped bought nothing, then this would generate a negative response to the question. The reverse pattern of responses is expected for test sentence If 12 is understood to mean that the mouse who dressed up cooked something, then this requires a negative answer to the question Did the mouse who dressed up cook nothing?
On the other hand, if 12 is understood to mean that the mouse who dressed up cooked nothing, then this would result in an affirmative answer. By using an explicit question-under-discussion, we could be sure that both readings of our test sentences were potentially available. We also ensured that the context preceding our stories made it clear why each test sentence would be true or false on each available reading. The condition of plausible dissent was originally proposed to apply to test sentences that were false in a given context.
It was suggested that children could erroneously accept these false test sentences, despite knowing the relevant grammatical principle under investigation, if the context did not provide a clear reason for denying the sentence. To guard against this, TVJT stories should outline a possible outcome, different from the actual outcome, on which a false test sentence would have been true. A natural extension of this design feature would be to also make clear the reason for accepting a true test sentence by outlining a possible outcome, different from the actual outcome, on which the sentence would have been false.
To make it clear to the child participants why the experimental sentences were true or false, we made sure that our stories always included a possible outcome that differed from the actual outcome on both possible interpretations of the test sentences. For example, in the skipping story in Condition 1, it was possible that the girl who skipped would buy nothing. This possibility arose because, at the beginning of the story, this girl decided to stay at home to practice skipping tricks instead of going to buy flowers. On this possible outcome, therefore, the double negation interpretation of the test sentence would have been false, while the negative concord interpretation would have been true.
However, by the conclusion of the story, it had turned out that the girl who skipped did buy something. This verified the double negation interpretation of the test sentence, and falsified the negative concord interpretation. Similarly, in the animal preschool story in Condition 2, it was possible that the mouse who dressed up would also cook something. This possibility arose because the mouse finished dressing up before morning teatime. On this possible outcome, the double negation interpretation of our test sentence would have been true, while the negative concord interpretation would have been false.
However, it turned out that the mouse who dressed up only wanted to make fruit salad, and there was no toy fruit available, so the mouse decided not to cook in the end. This actual outcome verified the negative interpretation of the test sentence, but falsified the double negation interpretation. The control sentences were designed to ensure that the test sentences were not too complex for the child participants to process, in virtue of having two instances of negation.
In this case, children might just ignore one of the negations. On both of these interpretations, the sentence would be judged to be false. Similarly, if children were unable to process both of the negative markers in Condition 2, they would judge the test sentences to be true. As with the test sentences, the control sentences were preceded by a question, as illustrated in The children could only answer these control items correctly if they processed both negations. As a matter of fact, he cooked some pizza. However, if children ignored one of the negations in this control sentence, then they might interpret it to mean that the mouse who dressed up cooked nothing.
On either of these interpretations, the control sentence would be judged to be true. Finally, each test story also incorporated a filler item. This was done to provide an equal number of Yes and No responses, and to ensure that children were presented with some easy judgments, in addition to the learnability consideration we discussed earlier, in Section 2. The fillers were either positive statements 3 fillers , or statements with a single negation 3 fillers. Example 14 illustrates a filler item with a single negation, from the skipping story in Condition 1. Because the boy in the skipping story did buy some flowers, this filler question was clearly false.
Four of the 24 child participants were excluded from the analysis.
Three of these children failed to perform successfully on at least 3 of the 6 control sentences and one child failed to answer the questions. Given the complexity of the test sentences and the control sentences, it is not surprising that a few children failed to successfully comprehend the control sentences. The 20 remaining children completed the experiment and their data were included in the analysis. These children ranged in age from 3;7 to 5;8, with a mean age of 4;9.
The 15 monolingual adults all passed at least 3 of the control items, and all of them were included in the analysis. The main findings are summarized in Figure 3. In this figure, the proportion of adult-like responses includes both Yes and No responses. As we will see shortly, 2 adults did not access double negation responses.
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